There are two types of translation from one language to another called as verbal and written. The examples of written translations are mainly the translations of commercial, academic, artistic-literal, law, catalogue, brochures and web sites. Commercial documents, contracts, finance transactions, tender documents and international contracts are the examples of commercial documents. Academic translations are made about thesis and research documents and juridical translations are court decisions, power of attorneys, license procedures, law and regulations. Consecutive, simultaneous, relay, retour and asymmetric translations are the types of verbal translation. Consecutive translation is preferred especially in business meals where the speaker completes speaking first and then translator translates them. Simultaneous translation is performed concurrently while speaker is talking. Retour translation is used when making translation from non-common languages into common languages.
The main rules which must be taken into account is to get information about the subject to be translated beforehand. Such a review will allow you to make faster and more correct translations. The meaning intended and emphasized in a text must be translated into the target language thoroughly. If the text to be translated is an official or juridical document, the exact correspondence of the words must be expressed. You can correct the spelling mistakes using spelling book of Turkish Language Association. Long and complicated sentences must be avoided by means of using conjunctions in the sentence. Sentences must be formed in more shorter forms and even where required itemization must be used to provide better understanding. Finally, completed target text must be read entirely and short or wrong parts must be corrected.
The most basic point to be considered is the re-statement of the sentences without damaging their meanings and integrity when translating a written context or word. Feelings and thoughts expressed in pursuance with grammar rules must be stated transparently. Different methods are being used according to what is intended to be emphasized when translating. In verbatim translation, the translation is done word by word and the content is converted into another language as a whole. Especially in rhymes, advertisement and slogans, the sounds and rhythms are more important than the meaning. Therefore, structural translation is implemented where the structure is more important than the content itself. When intended message and emphasized sentence is required to be stated transparently, communicality is implemented, but in the official documents where the content is more important, semanticity is required.
Prior to starting to translate sentence by sentence, the subject must be understood by reading the text from beginning to end. It must be first determined the type of the translation whether it is an official, juridical, literal or subjective text or not. The most important point to be considered while translating is to express the content transparently. The sentence must be translated identically with its exact correspondence. Where necessary, the content can be itemized to enable the reader to understand. Semantic confusion must be avoided using short sentences instead of using "and-or" conjunctive words very frequently. Must be benefited from spelling book of Turkish Language Association and the terms which are wrong and having another meanings must be avoided. After the translation is completed, the translated context must read thoroughly and translation mistakes and shortages must be corrected.
In certified translation which must be translated by certified translators, the content of the document are translated exactly. The translation to which the translator may not add his/her own interpretation is attested by the certified translator by putting and writing name, surname, signature and stamp that the document is translated literally. The translations made by experts are checked by expert editors and then submitted for the approval of the Notary Public. The documents for which certified translation are required are mainly ID cards, passports , certificate of marriage, tender documents, contracts, banking documents, catalogues, promotional documents such as advertisements and brochures, and any kind of official documents such as license documents, prospectuses, shares, annual reports, power of attorneys, court decisions, certificate of divorce, and contracts.
When a legislative document is being translated from one language into another, it is very important to make the translation in accordance with the applicable legislation. Since the laws of each country are different from each other, the laws of that country must be taken into account. Lawyers and law offices require certified translator and notary public certified translator. Juridical translations are mainly court decisions, juridical correspondences, laws and regulations, instructions for use, license applications, contracts, power of attorneys, declarations, court documents, licenses, divorce certificates, certificate of marriages and copy of vital statistics, driving licenses, diplomas, certificates of divorce, certificates of consent, protest notices, testaments, land registrations and EU Regulations. Official documents are translated correctly using technical terms and taking into account the juridical provisions of target language.
Simultaneous translation is used especially in conferences, symposiums, congresses, live TV programs and live broadcasts and translated into the desired target language concurrently with the speaker. It is the best communication method used in multi-language meetings. It provides time saving since it allows translation into more than one language in the meeting organizations concurrently. The interpreter located in a cabinet with a speaker and earphone translates what the speaker says to the audiences simultaneously. It is a highly difficult work, since no mistake tolerance is allowed to the translator. The translator transfers the words to the audiences via speaker while listening via earphone. The audiences listen the wordings of the translator via the earphone they have. Simultaneous translation have great importance in terms of transferring one language into multiple languages especially in international events.
Technical translation which requires proficiency as well as grammar knowledge is used especially in drug prospectuses and instructions for use for devices. Since this kind of translation requires terminology knowledge in addition to grammar knowledge, it is more difficult compared to other types of translations. Especially the mistakes in the translations of instruction for use for drugs and devices manufactured out of Turkey lead the user to make mistake and the devices to fail. The most important point when making technical translation is to express the sentences as clear as they can be understood by the reader. Itemization of the content will be useful both for reader and translator. Moreover while making translation, attention must be paid not to use the words "and-or" to allow reader to understand the translated context
Means the conversion of a word or expression into another language without deteriorating its meaning and in line with its original meaning. In our current Turkish, the translation is divided into two categories as verbatim and interpretive. In literal-verbatim translation which means to translate a sentence literally, the senses and thoughts intended to be expressed become insufficient since the wording style is not taken into consideration. The translation in which the target language and its nuances is felt is called as spiritual-interpretive translation. In this method which is more preferred in our days, the intended thoughts and meanings are expressed instead of word-word translation of the sentence. So, the sense and thoughts expressed in compliance to the grammar rules are transferred most ideally in this method.
Certified translator having a certificate issued by a Notary Public signs and stamps the official documents after translated. Stamped translation states that it is made without any interpretation. It is required to have a certificate of oath issued by the notary public after application for being a notary public certified translator. The translations of important documents are made by these translators and attested by the notary public. Non-certified translators may add to the translation their own interpretations. And moreover they do not put their signatures and stamps into official documents. The documents which are required to be translated by certified translators are mainly national Id cards, certificate of marriage, certificate of divorce, court decisions, academic degrees, diplomas, certificate of citizenship, adoption certificates.